Original Articles


Psychological and Criminological Investigation of Organized Crime
Farzaneh Azim pour, Mehdi Zemestani
 
Pages: 1-10
Published Date:
[ Abstract ]
Abstract: Transnational organized crime threat to the international community and especially is considered. The incidence of such crimes and factors outside the boundary of a country of this type of crime has a transnational character, and this is one of the main problems, governments and relevant international organizations in order to maintain international security and the activities prompted. Anti-social crime as a phenomenon in human society has always existed, exists and will exist. Constant struggle with the phenomenon of delinquency in perpetuity. But the crime rate and the types of it in different societies is different, Although forms of crime is changing with the evolution of society and the kind of simple and complex shape is simple. Committing a criminal act involving risks and costs to society if more people are criminals, risks and social costs much higher. But when the criminal activity with planning and coordination as an organization to be followed by numerous people, the risks are very great need for community, and such criminal activity, which consists of individuals and groups of society who have chosen its policy against the society as a challenge to society. Faced with this challenge, the crisis also considered century, understanding and awareness of various aspects of this kind of crime and its types is essential, It is only in the light of quantitative and qualitative research on organized crime within the framework of law, including criminology and criminal justice is possible. Mentioned subject of today's problems with the international community in the criminological and psychological research from two perspectives paid to review it.
Examining The Legal Perspectives Of Autopsy
SanazHassani, Ali Eftekhari
 
Pages: 11-14
Published Date:
[ Abstract ]
Abstract:One of the issues considered in practically proving crimes and verifying people’s identity is forensic autopsies in criminal investigations laboratory (practical police). The right to live is known as the inalienable human right, and if this right is denied without a legal cause, quick steps with adequate facilities must be taken to discover the committed crime and punish the perpetrators. This study analyzes the concept, objectives, and methods of autopsy and also investigates its significance and effect on practicing justice and coroner’s responsibilities. Autopsy is of high importance in legal procedure, and a diagnosis in harmony with reality guides the judge in discovering the truth. One of the issues discussed in this study is the imperative or supplementary nature of autopsy for diagnosing coroners that illustrates its approach in terms of legal actions. The legislator occasionally considers judges independence and in some cases emphasizes expertise and knowledge; the legislator’s two-way thinking without considerations of determining the priority in practice have caused some problems for law practitioners and coroners. In this study, historical process of autopsy in criminal law and legal procedure in Islamic Republic of Iran is investigated, and the type of judges’ supervision and coroners’ roles in terms of a connoisseur, experts, and specialist are analyzed and discussed later.Regarding that Islamic Republic of Iran’s Law and legislation is based on Islamic religion laws, Islamic jurists ideas on autopsy are introduced, and it is shown that despite the initial prohibition of autopsy by jurists and religious principles, autopsy is allowed in some cases and under some circumstances. Autopsy is of high importance in discovering the truth, and it has significant contributions to serving justice. This issue requires a legal permission although the coroner has authority to choose the type of method and procedure of autopsy.
A Study on the evidences of proving maternal filiation in Iranian law
Mohammad Abouata,soheilkabiri,soheilzolfaghari
 
Pages: 15-20
Published Date:
[ Abstract ]
Abstract: In Iranian civil code, there are not special regulations on proving maternal filiation and this matter, principally has been put subject to general provisions of proving claims. So a person who wants to establish her/his legitimate filiation to a woman having husband, ought to produce relevant evidences. Such evidences regard two different but related points: Woman’s accouchement and the conformity of the child who was born from her with the claimant of filiation. As the pregnancy and accouchement fall in legal events classification, they can be proved by any legal evidences. The most common evidences in this respect consist in:identification document, confession, testimony, hearsay and many presumptionsof fact. Of course the effectiveness of some of these evidencesespecially confession to filiation, is subject to particular conditions stipulated in civil code.
The Vakil's Position and its Evolution Process in the Safavid Dynasty Era
Mohammad Ali Ranjbar
 
Pages: 21-27
Published Date:
[ Abstract ]
Abstract:The Vakil's (Lawyer) position existed with especial contents just in Safavid dynasty era (1501-1722). According to this fact, this position had rooted in the features of that era. Theocracy was the most important feature; the Safavid Shah (King) in the perfect Morshed (Master of rule of life and world's Sufism) position of Sufi had a sanctum and extraterrestrial dignity that he needed a mediator for connecting to devotees. This mediator who was Shah's spiritual representative on one hand and he was responsible for the Shah's sublunary position on the other hand, could play this role better. But by changing Shah's position in Qizilbash's view, Vakil's position found conceptual evolution in order to reach from Shah's spiritual representation dignity to Divan (Administrative department) chairman to fill the position of Etemad-al-Dole. In this changing position, the existed challenges should not be neglected in Safavid dynasty among Turkish Qizilbash'sAmirs and Vakils who were usually Iranian. So, in this era, an evolution process of Vakil's positions and duties were presented. This essay is attempted to study this process and its implementation.
Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Melissa Officinal is (Lemon balm) on morphine state dependent learning in mice
Ramesh Ahmadi, AzadehKarimi anjiraki
 
Pages: 28-32
Published Date:
[ Abstract ]
Abstract: Backgrounds and Objectives: Melissa officinalis has a variety of effects, including sedation and antioxidant .M. Officinalis has also terpenoides that is useful in memory and learning. Opioid agonists have destructive effects on memory andthese drugs are injected pre- training decrease memory. Moreover morphine can effect on memory and learning by opioid receptors of hippocampus opioidergic system. The present study was conducted the effects of M.Officinalis extract on SDL in mice. Materials and methods: 66 male mice were selected and allocated to 11 groups (n=6).To study memory in mice using passive avoidance method to measure step-down latency. Results: The injection of pre- training of morphine (3mg/kg) Cause memory impairment But injection ofpre–testing of morphine(3mg/kg) can improve memory. The obtained results showed that morphine was caused state dependent learning. injection of pre- training of M.Officinalis extract 25 mg/kg and pre – testing of saline intraperitoneally can increase memory. injection of pre- training of morphine (3mg/kg) and pre – testing of M.Officinalis extract 25 mg/kg can decrease memory. Conclusion: Interaction effect of morphine and Varangboo decrease memory.
The Design of Optimum Bracing Connection welding to gusset plate by using finite element method
PoonehShahmalekpour, ArashBahar,KomeylHosseinzadeh
 
Pages: 32-35
Published Date:
[ Abstract ]
Abstract:Welded connections have a significant importance in a steel structure. Many structures all over the world had failed because of weld defects despite the strong structural steel profile. The result of a wide research on buildings in Tehran, from design to inspection and operation steps showed that almost 90 percent of defects in steel structures relates to weak operation and non systematic welding operation. This fact shows the importance of research on failure mechanisms of welded connections to predict their behavior under loading. A research program was undertaken to present the welding layout in steel structures by prediction the behavior of welded connections against different loads. The finite element software ABAQUS is used in this research with regard to bearing capacity, operational and economical points. Present such layouts improves structure security and decreases hazards of destructive effects on structure.
An Exploration on the Impact of Textual Input Enhancement and Explicit Rule Presentation on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners' Intake of Noun Making Suffixes
Elmira Pouryousef and Mehran Davaribina
 
Pages: 36-42
Published Date:
[ Abstract ]
Abstract: The present study investigated the impact of textual input enhancement and explicit rule presentation on 93 Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ intake of noun making suffixes. Three general English classes in Anzali Islamic Azad University were randomly assigned to: 1) a Textual Input Enhancement (TIE) group, 2) a TIE plus explicit rule presentation (RP) group and 3) a control group. All participants were given 10 reading texts and comprehension questions to complete. For participants in groups 1 and 3 the input was textually enhanced through bold facing and underlining. Participants in group two in addition had explicit rule presentation of noun making suffixes. Intake of noun making suffixes was measured through performance on a Multiple-choice Recognition Test. The results of a one-way ANOVA indicated that there was a significant gain from pretest to posttest. Furthermore, TIE + RP group significantly outperformed the control group in posttest. The study concluded with some pedagogical implications.
Comparing Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Rosa Canina and Hydroalcoholic Extract of Dill on Lipoprotein in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats
Sanaz Sardaste Aali, Felor Zargari
 
Pages: 43-46
Published Date:
[ Abstract ]
Abstract: Background: diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the body is not able to make full use of sugar and is associated with many complications. The most important of which dyslipidemia can be pointed out which is one of the most important signs of cardiovascular diseases. In general, in the world, especially in recent years, the general trend has been rising in the use of herbal medicines which are rich sources of natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of dill plant and Rosa Canina in reducing sugar and fat in diabetic patients’s blood. Materials and methods: In this study, 40 adult male rats, weighing 200-250 g were divided into five groups of eight each: Group I served as control rats (non-diabetic group), and Group II (diabetic control) received alloxan monohydrate in a dose 120 mg / kg during six days on alternate days, and Groups III and IV, received alcoholic extract of dill and Rosa Canina as 300 mg / kg (by intraperitoneal injection) and Group VI received 150 mg / kg equally from each extract with overall volume 300 mg / kg for 10 days. At the end of treatment after blood sample collection, blood sugar content, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL were measured. Results: The results showed that Rosa Canina Hydroalcoholic extract and dill hydroalcoholic extract significantly reduced (p <0.05) glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and significantly increased HDL (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the effect of dill hydroalcoholic extract was more than that of Rosa Canina and combining the two extracts had a greater impact than individual extracts. Conclusions: It seems, combining the two extracts in diabetic patients, is a more effective procedure in controlling blood sugar and fat.
Investigating the effect of service marketing mix on increasing the sales in Special Cooperative Company of Iran Khodro
Peyman Fathi Aghdam, Soheil Sarmad Saeidi, Amir Babak Marjani
 
Pages: 47-52
Published Date:
[ Abstract ]
Abstract: According to the purpose, this study has done to investigate the effect of service marketing mix on increasing the sales in Special Cooperative Company of Iran Khodro .The research methodology in this study is descriptive - survey research. According to the purpose this study is applied research. Sample size based on number of population that it is 1000 people by using the sampling method of limited population has used that according to Cochran formula ,278 people was identified. Therefore, it can conclude that factors of service marketing mix components such as price, physical factors, advertisement, Human Resource, efficiency, and place and product effect on increasing the sales of Iran Khodro Special cooperative company and there is a positive and significant relationship and the results of priority has showed the most effectiveness rate located on sales rate. Priorities of marketing mixed factors components respectively include: efficiency factors, place, advertisement, process, price, physical factors, Human Resource, and finally the most effective is on the sale rate in Iran Khodro special cooperative company.
Study on Some Agronomic Traits in Advanced Potato Cultivars and Clones in Ardabil
Nazila Yousefi Faal, Ali Akbar Imani, Davoud Hassanpanah
 
Pages: 53-56
Published Date:
[ Abstract ]
Abstract: In order to evaluate some agronomic traits in potato varieties and advanced clones in Ardabil field experiment in 2015 in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station of Ardabil carried out to evaluate some agronomic traits in advanced potato cultivars and clones in Ardabil. This test with 7 advanced medium clone late and three witnesses of Agria, Marfona and Savalan total of 10 clones and the figure was based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. In this study, plant height, number of main stems, number of tubers per plant, tuber weight per plant, total tuber yield and marketable tuber yield were evaluated. The results showed that between clones and cultivars except number of main stems per plant for all traits, there are significant differences in levels 1 and 5% probability. This suggests genetic variation between clones and cultivars in order to select for the traits considered. Among the characteristics, the number of tubers per plant and plant height by 8.21 percent to 8.20 percent, the most had the lowest coefficient of variation. Tuber yield (clone 3) than the control varieties and cultivars Marfona and Savalan 21.78 and 15.03 percent increase respectively. In other words, normal operation is relatively good. Agria cultivar (control) with an average of 43.15 tons per hectare, with the remaining difference was statistically significant and clone No. 1 (HS95-1) with an average of 25.95 ha lowest among clones and cultivars had the gland. So tuber yield than the parent parental clone No. 10 increased by 9.57 and 23.51 percent in other words, tuber is normal and good. Agria cultivar (control) with an average of 39.12 tons per hectare, with the remaining difference was statistically significant and clones No. 1 (HS95-1) with an average of 20.54 tons per hectare least marketable tuber yield clones and cultivars among themselves.
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