Original Articles


Molecular identification of local plant growth promoting rhizobacteria that act as resistance inducing agent against rice blast disease
Dewa Ngurah Suprapta, Khamdan Khalimi, Anak Agung Ketut Darmadi
 
Pages: 1-6
Published Date: 20 February, 2016
[ Abstract ]
ABSTRACT : Rice blast disease caused by Pyricularia oryzae Cav. frequently occurs as limiting factor for rice production in many parts of the world where rice is grown. The disease has been known to cause significant yield looses in rice including local varieties. Padi Merah Medang Putih, is one of Bali rice local varieties that popular among consumers, however this variety is highly susceptible to the blast disease. This study was done to find and identify plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that capable of inducing resistance against blast disease on Padi Merah Medang Putih. Ninety five isolates of rhizobacteria were isolated from diverse plant rhizospheres grown in Bali and tested for their ability to promote the rice growth and induce resistance against blast disease. Nine isolates have been proven serve as PGPR and among them four isolates namely KDDA, O38, OR3 and Al7Kla are capable of inducing resistance against blast disease on Padi Merah Medang Putih. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, these PGPR are respectively identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus KDDA, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens O38, Pseudomonas aeruginosa OR3 and Achromobacter xylosoxidans Al7Kla. All of these PGPR can be further utilized to induced resistance against blast disease on Bali local rice variety, Padi Merah Medang Putih under green house as well as field condition.
The Zigbee Wireless Sensor Netwrok In Medical Applications: A Critical Analysis Study
Bader A Alyoubi, Ibrahiem M. M. El Emary
 
Pages: 7-16
Published Date: 20 February, 2016
[ Abstract ]
ABSTRACT: Wireless sensor network is gaining popularity and its applications are being deployed in many sectors such as industrial, construction, healthcare etc. Zigbee standard provides the low cost, low rate data transmission wirelessly. The applications developed using Zigbee technology can transfer data to other devices within the network wirelessly. Zigbee based applications are being implemented in the healthcare sector and examples of such applications are wireless patient monitoring and wireless fitness monitoring. These applications use medical sensors to capture the vital indicators such as heart rate, blood sugar level, temperature etc. These data are securely transmitted to other devices; so that medical professionals can monitor the patient’s health remotely and take further course of action. The main objective of this paper is to examine in detail the main characteristics, features and architecture of Zigbee standards; then the impact of interference on Zigbee applications were evaluated and finally concluded with analysing the impact of Zigbee WSN applications in the medical field.
Scenario Based Agriculture Land Use for Achieving Sustainable Irrigation Water Requirements in Saudi Arabia: A Case Study of Najran Region
Ahmed Helmy Othman, Mohamed Hussain Dahim
 
Pages: 17-31
Published Date: 20 February, 2016
[ Abstract ]
ABSTRACT: Saudi Arabia (SA) is facing a severe scarcity of its water sources. The gap between sustainable irrigation water sources (SIWS) and irrigation water requirements (IWR) in SA is in a continuous increase. Groundwater is considered the primary source of irrigation water in SA and a huge part of which (non-renewable groundwater) is used to bridge this gap leading to a continuous depletion of this vital source. In the current study, present and future IWRs have been estimated and predicted. IWRs for principal crops in SA has been calculated based on available climate data for the period from 1985 to 2011 in Najran Region (NR), in the southwestern part, as a case study. IWR for the main perennial crops (dates, citrus, and alfalfa) has been calculated as an average for the 13th regions contributing to agriculture in SA. These regions include Riyadh, Makkah, Madinah, Qaseem, Eastern, Aseer, Tabuk, Hail, Northen, Jazan, Najran, Baha, and Jouf. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) has been calculated using FAO56 Penman-Monteith equation. Five reform scenarios for the future use of agricultural areas have been proposed hoping to reach sustainable irrigation water requirement (SIWR). The results proved the opportunity of SA to reach SIWR in the coming twenty years by: phasing out the cultivation of forage crops by the year 2036, and keeping current rate of growth (or decline) trend in the agricultural land areas of both fruits and vegetables. Supporting farmers to shift 1% annually of the current planted area of each crop from the traditional to the modern irrigation system is also a must.
Internet of Things: Ecosystem and Applications
Samer M. Barakat
 
Pages: 32-34
Published Date: 20 February, 2016
[ Abstract ]
ABSTRACT :The recent upgrade to IPV6 internet protocol which expanded the number of available IP addresses indicates that the Internet is moving into a big expansion in terms of the number of things and objects intended to be connected over the network, enabling it to become an Internet of Things (IoT). This connection shall enable the objects and things to share information among them and thus open the door for new web, mobile and wireless applications. In other words all computers, smart phones, mobile and any other device can be connected to the Internet. This paper shall follow an exploratory approach to outline the use of Internet of Things (IoT) in terms of its applications and the structure and components of its ecosystem.
Strategic Thinking Competencies and their Impact on Strategic Flexibility
Hasan Ali Al-Zu’bi
 
Pages: 35-39
Published Date: 20 February, 2016
[ Abstract ]
ABSTRACT: The study aimed to reveal the impact of strategic thinking competencies on the achievement of strategic flexibility, as well as determine the level of availability of strategic thinking and strategic flexibility. The study was conducted at Islamic banks in Jordan, which represents the study population, and to achieve the goals of the study was to develop a questionnaire was developed to gather primary data from a sample of the study, which consisted of (168) responses. Competencies of strategic thinking were measured through dimensional (systemic thinking, innovative thinking, and thinking-oriented vision) that relied on the Moon study, 2003. The strategic flexibility variable has been measured based on Matheson & Matheson study, 2011. After data collection is the study hypothesis major test which there is no significant effect a statistically significant level ( 0.05) dimensions of strategic thinking (systemic thinking, innovative thinking, and thinking-oriented vision) in strategic flexibility. I have been using regression analysis to test the hypotheses of the study, which resulted in the most important finding showing there is a significant effect of the dimensions of strategic thinking to achieve strategic flexibility in the organizations studied.
Socio-economic factors affecting spatial planning of entrepreneurship in rural area (evidence from Masal County, Iran)
Fatollah Keshavarz Shal, Teymour Amar, Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari, Bahman Ramezani
 
Pages: 40-46
Published Date: 20 February, 2016
[ Abstract ]
ABSTRACT: Entrepreneurship is of vital importance in villages and is regarded as a step towards rural develop-ment. The socio-economic factors affecting spatial planning of entrepreneurship were analyzed in the villages of Masal city by a descriptive survey in 2015. The statistical society was composed of three groups of people involved in rural entrepreneurship planning in Masal (N = 1513) out of which 483 people were sampled by Cochran’s general formula. The main tool of the study was a questionnaire used for data collection. It was designed on the basis of different theories of entrepreneurship as well as the organizational insights of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. The face validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by university teachers and experts. Cronbach’s alpha was calcu-lated as to be 0.8 showing acceptable reliability of the questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 21) Sta-tistical Package at both descriptive and inferential levels. The economic and social factors were divided into three groups on the basis of the results of explorative factor analysis.
Two possible ways of the sociology development as two versions of the social dimension
Sharonova Svetlana, Daria Tzukanova
 
Pages: 47-51
Published Date: 20 February, 2016
[ Abstract ]
ABSTRACT: Born in Europe sociology immediately received a response in the minds of Russian philosophers, theologians, philosophical position which was significantly different from Western scholars. One of the main differences was the issue that means social reality. In the definition of the term E. Durkheim and M. Weber were based on the analysis and understanding of the religions and their place in society. Separate religion from culture, they got two dimensional space dimension of society. The chief justices of social change are the people themselves, which adjust their actions according to their own views and opinions. According to Russian philosophers, theologians (Solovev, Florenskiy, Berdyaev, Fedorov, Bulgakov), religion cannot be separated from the culture, the culture is only sheets on the tree of the religion. Social reality in their understanding becomes three-dimensional space, where the practice, human morality is always related to the divine commandments, laws. But the Russian sociology has been destroyed and forgotten, and world sociology began to develop along the path indicated by European sociologists. Intensification of religious extremism brings us back to the starting point. Perhaps confessional sociology will deepen their understanding of the problems within the religious community, which is not confined to any state, and should not necessarily be formally adopted standards. The purpose of this paper is an attempt to describe the perception of social reality, using the principles of Russian philosophers, theologians, and uncover opportunities measurement mechanisms that society.
Development Trends of Parametric Row of Compression Refrigerating Devices
Yurii BAIDAK
 
Pages: 52-56
Published Date: 20 February, 2016
[ Abstract ]
ABSTRACT: The main directions of compression refrigerating devices modern parametric row development and the most significant recent achievements which allow to improve energy efficiency and productivity of refrigeration machines, and those on which they will develop in the future, namely: improving of compression refrigerating device using environmentally friendly refrigerant; increasing of the volume and reducing the temperature in the freezer; searching of new insulation materials that promote the term of low temperature keeping in the refrigerating chamber in case of temporary loss of power supply; reduction of compression refrigerating device outer surface with unchanging useful volume of the chamber; creating conditions of uniform temperature distribution inside the useful volume of refrigerating chamber are summarized in the paper.
Effect of Ondansetron in Prevention of Spinal Anesthesia-Induced Hypotension in Pregnant Women Candidate for Elective Cesarean Section
Hashem Jarineshin, Fereydon Fekrat, Saeed Kashani
 
Pages: 57-62
Published Date: 20 February, 2016
[ Abstract ]
ABSTRACT: Complications such as hypotension and bradycardia may occur during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ondansetron on preventing hypotension following spinal anesthesia in pregnant women candidate for elective cesarean delivery. This double blind clinical trial was done on 151 pregnant women with ASA I-II who were randomly divided into two groups. The group O received 4 mg diluted Ondansetron and the group N received placebo before implication of spinal anesthesia with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. Hemodynamic variables, O2 saturation, nausea, the vomiting episodes, and antiemetic dosage were recorded after spinal anesthesia. Data was analyzed using SPSSv16 and a P< 0.05 was assumed significant. Demographic variables were similar in two groups but mean weight was higher in group O. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was similar in two groups except that group N patients had higher SBP in the 2nd minute after spinal anesthesia. Mean diastolic BP (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were lower in group N in 6, 8, 30 and 35 minutes. There was no significant difference in Mean heart rate and O2 saturation, nausea, vomiting and chills between two groups. The 1st minute Apgar score was lower in group O. The attenuating effect of spinal anesthesia on DPB and MAP is significantly decreased by Ondansetron prophylaxy during cesarean section but has no significant effect on SBP, heart rate, chills and nausea, but it can mildly decrease the incidence of vomiting after cesarean section.
Knowledge Sharing Practices Among Saudi Academics: A Case Study Of King Abdulaziz University
Muna D. Alsuraihi, Khalil Yaghi, Ayman Bassam Nassuora
 
Pages: 63-68
Published Date: 20 February, 2016
[ Abstract ]
ABSTRACT: In the current times, universities are amenable to produce, handle and disseminate the knowledge in various organizations, communities, and communities. Therefore, universities should promote the knowledge sharing process between the different academic members. Knowledge sharing is a key love of knowledge management. It is associate degree obligatory issue for various organizations. Generally, the literature shows that there is lack of knowledge sharing in universities as well as lack of knowledge sharing among academics in universities at the most in developing countries. Saudi Arabia is still in the early stages of the knowledge management compared to other countries, such as USA and UK. The purpose of this study is to identify the actual level of knowledge sharing practice among Saudi academic members. The overall findings revealed that knowledge sharing is fundamental to the achievement of knowledge management practices in all organizations, including universities. Successful knowledge sharing among academics is extremely necessary for universities. This studyconcludes that the academics feel very strongly about the importance of knowledge sharing practices among Saudi academics. The findings revealed that the academics by and large had an inspirational attitude towards knowledge sharing and were mindful of its significance in universities.
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